Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Educational Innovation and Philosophical Inquiries (ICEIPI 2022), Part III
Educational innovation has become an important issue on a global scale. The evolution of society and technology has provided new ways to improve future teaching achievements. It also allows us to seek different solutions to the problems that were difficult to solve in the past. On the other hand, our conference aims at unveiling and inspecting the philosophical inquiries usually hidden among the lines of logical debate. We hope that inter-disciplinary studies with a social scientific focus can all be traced back to the very source of their philosophical pursuits and eventually contribute to the creation of knowledge.
Nasir Mahmood, University of Sialkot
Abdullah Laghari, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology
The Shiji史記（Records of the historian）written by Sima Qian司馬遷is the first of the so-called “official histories”. Professor Liang Qichao梁啟超 once said, "Before Sima Qian, there was no such thing as historiography." This view is debatable, but it is a good indication of the status of the Shiji. In particular, Sima Qian changed the "chronological" compilation method of the pre-Qin先秦 period and adopted the " biographical style", which was followed by the "official history". However, there is still no definite conclusion as to whether the style of the Shiji was first created by Sima Qian or was inherited from his predecessors. In view of this, based on the previous studies, this paper intends to explore the creation of the style of Shiji and discuss Sima Qian's view of history, his historical knowledge, and the historical significance of Shiji on the basis of "the way of heaven" and "human affairs”.
This paper aims to trace the legacy of the Gracchi brothers and the effect of their reform throughout the republican era, specifically over how it foreshadows the collapse of the Republic. Although the reform implemented by the Gracchus brothers failed, it is still of great historical importance because it reveals the corrupted nature of Roman republic while taking the socioeconomic background into consideration to predict the downfall Rome. The downfall of the Gracchi brothers was primarily resulted from the majority of the senators whose interests were against the reform measures because the benefits for the majority were built on the lost of the senators. As a result, the Senate refused to accept changes of any sort and rejected an opening advancement proposed to improve the welfare of the People, leading to the tragedy of the death of Gracchi brothers.
Cultural heritage information includes intuitive information and hidden information of cultural heritage, which is the precious wealth left by history to mankind, the basic basis for judging cultural identity and cultural sovereignty, also the great significance to human civilization. In recent years, many explorations and practices have been made in the collection, preservation and dissemination of cultural heritage information. With the rapid development of digital visualization technology and Internet technology, the development level of digital visualization technology is constantly improving. Because of its powerful and efficient information processing ability and diversified display methods, it has been used by more and more historical and cultural institutions. Taking Confucius Museum as a specific case, this paper analyzes the development status of digital visualization of cultural heritage information, discusses the design method of digital visualization, and makes innovative exploration.
People come and go over the course of time, but some have made such a long lasting contribution to the modern society as Machiavelli. Machiavelli, a diplomat, philosopher and politician during the Renaissance, is a controversial figure over time. In spite of his unkindness showed in his thoughts, scholars and politicians around the globe acquire some insights from him. From his book, The Prince, we can find out his idea of power and the influence of some Islamic thinkers, and if we look at some contemporary Islamic thinkers’ work, we can tell Machiavelli’s influence as well.
At present, the digital development of museums appears to be a new trend. Ancient books are vulnerable, illegible and unfit for display, but digital technology can provide better protection, research and display for this. Digital display serves as a significant way to inherit ancient books. By studying the application of digital display in the exhibition of "Return and Reconstruction of The Yongle Canon" in the National Museum of Classic Books, it is hoped to provide some references and inspirations for relevant researchers and designers.
Commoda Romani Populi(public interest) played a prominent role in the political practice in Republican Rome. This preliminary study aims to provide an overview of the role of Commoda Romani Populi in Roman political culture and its political performance. The latest scholarships have shown that the Roman people played a far more critical role in politics than previous scholars thought. Thus it is necessary to reinterpret the role of the Roman people in politics. This essay adopts the theories of Almond and Verba to claim that the majority of Roman people in Rome was not simply politically passive at all time. When political elites have severe lapses in promoting the public interest, their level of political engagement can be dramatically be motivated that finally forces political elites to consider public opinion and hold their behaviours responsible. Moreover, this essay also offers a brief examination of how Commoda Romani Populi was perceived, reinterpreted and manipulated when there was a strong disagreement between political elites and Roman people during the late Roman Republic. Finally, this study argues that the Commoda Romani Populi has a real cultural and practical influence on public affairs instead of being an empty slogan.
The revolutions in ancient Rome focusing on Gracchus brothers and Marius, mainly about solving the militia problem - military shortage. The Gracchus brothers pointed out the problems of the suppression of the middle class and forcing them to join the army. Even though they did not provide the best solution. The conservatives Senate refused to acknowledge these problems and used violence to kill these reformers. As in Marius’s time, he provided a better solution to the problem by recruiting the lower-class Roman citizens and granting their lands after the serve. The leaders of ancient Rome knew the problems of the empire and the right solution to solve them. But they refused to acknowledge them and insisted there were no problems at all because using these solutions would decrease their power of controlling everything and profit generated. The Roman senators only dealt with the problem when it grows bigger and becomes inevitable instead of solving it early enough when the problem is not severe.The goal of this paper is to compare the refusal of acknowledgment of the problems of the leaders in ancient Rome to the refusal of acknowledgment of the current problems(such as climate change) of the leaders nowadays.
The 1920s to the 1930s in Republican China witnessed rising academic interest in exploring China’s frontier regions, both from abroad and within the nation. This paper examines the nature of foreign exploration in China at that time and the resulting exchange of knowledge that shaped science’s development worldwide. The exchange was facilitated through an elite network of international specialists in Beijing, while Chinese academics and local residents became increasingly indispensable to foreign investigators—thanks to their local knowledge and control over the sites. Together, they not only contributed to the establishment of indigenous scientific institutions but advanced the geology, archaeology, and paleoanthropology fields internationally. However, the nominally objective work of Western scholars often masked hegemonic inclinations, both explicit and implicit, which tended to vary according to the country sponsoring each investigator. By the late 1920s, rising Chinese objections to foreign exploration caused conflicts between imperialist motivations and nationalistic powers. Thus, it would be equally a reductionist reading of history to simply assume Republican China’s intelligentsia were the victims of imperialist aggression or to draw a rosy picture of transnational collaboration. This paper suggests that early twentieth-century Republican China offers a rich example of the intersection of scientific internationalism, imperialism, and nationalism.
The Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) was also a page in the development of the Chinese nation that was marked by vicissitudes. During this period, the national spirit, with patriotism as its core, reached an unprecedented height. The Sino-Japanese War lasted fourteen years, divided into the stage of a partial war and a full-scale war. This article focuses on the comprehensive strategic defence phase during the full-scale war from 1937 to 1939, with the Battle of Shanghai as the main focus, and discusses the analysis of the history of the war and the national spirit embodied in it. The significance of the Battle of Shanghai is not only the military strategic consideration of "uploading and transmitting" or buying time for the national industry to move inward, but also the "united mindset" and even "bottom-up" spirit, from officers to popular people. The national spirit of "bottom up" embodied in it provided valuable and rich ideological and psychological reserves for people to resist the war for a long time. The Battle of Shanghai promoted the unity and solidarity of people from all social classes in Shanghai and even the whole country under the call of "resisting Japan and defeating insults, solidarity in the national defense", and promoted the development of an unprecedented new climax of the national anti-Japanese movement.
Human historical consciousness has undergone fundamental changes after multi-dimensional interactions with postmodern context. After analysing the conditions for the formation of such postmodern historical consciousness and its impact on human beings, obviously, postmodernism engendered great impact on historical ontology, historical epistemology and historical methodology which resulted in postmodern-contextualization of historical consciousness.
The Tang empire marked the peak of imperial China as it was one of the greatest superpowers in the world of its time. The Daming Palace that represented the empire’s authority and strength was also of glory. It was an unprecedentedly magnificent compound built to demonstrate the supremacy of the vast empire to all its people and visitors. Despite the empire’s mightiness, rising warlords and corrupt bureaucrats destroyed it from within as well as the Daming Palace. After the downfall of Tang, China experienced a long period of chaos and another Han-ruled empire was only to be seen five contraries later. The Ming empire reorganized regimes in China and the Forbidden City in Beijing, which still exists today, demonstrates in silence the changes of Chinese society. From the changes in symbolism significance and more deliberate distinction of the royalty’s privilege, as the one chosen by god, from others in the empire, we can connect the social changes with the surfacing changes of buildings. For example, the Ming government had more control at local levels so that they could collect more taxes and nip any potential threat to the central government in the bud. The government also conducted an embargo in coastal areas to protect them from foreign invaders. To eliminate all threats to the throne, the empire set up a secret police force that supervised the society from nobilities to peasants. All these policies lead to a stricter social stratification that was visible through the changes in architecture. The changes in politics and economic aspects such as taxation lead us to one conclusion, which is the strengthening of the centralization of power and an extension of governance to lower levels. And this study is planned to unveil the connections between the changes in architectural and social developments.
In recent years, as remade movies from Hollywood in China are booming, an increasing number of successful cases have been made. Movie posters are always the first greed to the audiences and they help a lot at leaving people with a good first impression of the movie and triggering their interests. Since the original stories are based on American society and culture, remade ones in China need to be adapted to Chinese culture and posters, at the first sight, make a big difference. Thus, the comparison of posters of remade movies from the stance of cultural background needs further study. This article identifies the cultural factors influencing the illustration and perception of the remakes’ posters. In the following parts, we will analyze the selected five sets of posters from the perspective of four branches of interactive meaning in multimodal discourse. Furthermore, we will explain the differences demonstrated by interactive meaning through cultural context. We will discuss a proper way and attitude to localize the foreign stories and illustrate them well by combining cultural elements and features.
As one of Great Britain’s main oversea assets going into the 1900s and with its rich traditions and diversity, India and its road to independence have drawn much scholarly interest. Studies of pre-independence modern India have always centered around the development of Indian nationalism that became the backbone of the Quit India movement, eventually leading to the establishment of a new nation and exit of its colonizer. Almost inseparable from India’s independence is the Partition of 1947 that witnessed the formation of two sovereigns which, in existing works and research, features the culmination of religious conflicts between the two largest religious groups in the peninsula. This hyper-focus on the main players has led to gaps in comprehending the roles of other minority groups that shared the stage alongside Hindus and Muslims. While these groups did not and could not become as politically influential as the political triangle among Hindus, Muslims, and the British, their struggles and mere existence helped shape the political landscape within the region and paved the foundation to India’s path in becoming a secular state. This paper explores the discourse of Indian Christians, the nation’s third largest religious community, leading up to the fateful summer day in 1947. Using primary sources as evidence and secondary sources as guidance, it examines the majority vs. minority dichotomy within pre-independence India under a hypersensitive religious context and how Indian Christians maneuvered the political waters to achieve social integration. In doing so, it attempts to explore the prospect and methodology of achieving religious coexistence between a religious majority and religious minorities in the nation-building process.
Along with the booming of psychopathic research, cross-cultural generalisability on psychopathy arose. Considering the number of potential justifications for cultural differences, however, the generalisable conclusions remained a puzzle. Little attention had been paid to psychopathy with regard to the impact of cultural differences and similarities. In this paper, we provide an overview of how cultures have influenced psychopathic individuals and present an introduction to cultural psychology and psychopathy. We display and analyze the current situation in the field and come up with guidance for future studies.
This paper mainly studies people's misunderstanding of Japanese traditional archery because of The influence of Chinese culture and the substantial influence of Chinese culture on Japanese traditional archery. This paper adopts qualitative research methods to compare and study the literature. With the development of research, I found that the origin of Japanese traditional archery has nothing to do with China, and it exists in an independent bow species. Moreover, the substantial influence of Chinese culture on Japanese traditional archery lies in ritual culture, architectural style, sacrificial way and inner thought. This study confirms the independence of the origin of Japanese traditional archery, refutes the idea in Chinese society that Japanese culture is entirely derived from China, and discovers the real influence. This study contributes to the current knowledge base, that is, the relationship between Japanese traditional archery and Chinese culture, which is helpful for the spread of Japanese traditional archery in China.
Studies have investigated the factors that affect entertainment preferences, including what we listen to, watch, and read. Only a few studies focused on the film genres and current findings are still insufficient. To explore the relationship between personality and film genre preferences, this study uses the self-reported questionnaire to collect data and test the correlations between the two variables. The personality traits are analyzed based on the Big Five Model, which consisted of Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Openness to Experiences. The results indicate 1) there are positive correlations between the Big Five personality traits and film genre preferences, 2) the incorporation of Conscientiousness and Openness to Experiences could predict the film genre preferences, 3) the gender differences should be considered in the analysis of personality and film genre preferences as well.
Historians have conducted extensive research on Japan after World War Two. This study analyzes the Japanese aggression in Manchuria and its rationales in creating a “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.” It explores the ways in which the establishment of Manchukuo shape the relations between Han and Manchu Chinese in contemporary China. The analysis is based on multifarious sources, including newspapers in the twentieth century that recorded the history of Manchukuo and findings by authoritative researchers on East Asia. This study sheds light on the status of the Manchu Chinese, who have almost been assimilated into the overwhelming Han majority.
The literati and officialdom in the Northern Song Dynasty developed a political consciousness and demands that had not existed among their predecessors. They established political identities and cultivated a strong sense of political subjectivity. This paper mainly examines how the literati and officialdom politics developed and evolved in the Northern Song Dynasty. Using the research method of literature reviews, the paper focuses on the following questions: how the emperors of the early Northern Song Dynasty designed and constructed governing structures, how these structures affected the literati and bureaucratic system, and how literati and officialdom politics developed based on their acceptance and rejection of these ideas. The Northern Song literati showed their unique cultural profile as they ruled together with the emperor and, as a result, created a peculiar literati bureaucratic politics. The Northern Song literati bureaucrats evolved and strengthened their subjectivity both through the political status they acquired and through their political participation.
From the perspective of affordances, this paper explores the interactive design method of intangible cultural heritage, taking Jiang Mu APP as an example to demonstrate the core point of the research. This paper analyzes the affordances characteristics of intangible cultural heritage from three aspects, promotes the dissemination and inheritance of traditional culture by enhancing users' experience and feelings, and further discusses the “Jiang Mu APP", and explores the practical application of the affordances theory in the interactive design of intangible cultural heritage from the perspective of experience, behavior and cultural dissemination, so as to provide new ideas and ways for the interactive design method of intangible cultural heritage, and promote the form and future development trend of digital dissemination of intangible cultural heritage.
As a result of the rise of neo-Aristotelianism in recent times, the discussion of 'virtue' has led to the question of whether virtue ethics can exist as a sound system. Prior to this, there was no normative standard for 'virtue', deontology ignored human nature, and utilitarianism focused more on instrumental reason, ignoring the plurality of the 'good'. Anscombe defined 'virtue ethics' in his Modern Moral Philosophy, and Nussbaum built on this by arguing that goodness does not depend only on the rationality of the actor, but also on morality and institutions, and Hesterhaus provided a normative interpretation of virtue ethics from an Aristotelian standpoint. However, as virtue ethics defines and regulates virtue ethics, it is difficult to form a logically coherent system, as either virtue ethics is more or less connected to other ethics, and there are even contradictions between specific claims.