Communications in Humanities Research

Communications in Humanities Research

Vol. 1, 12 December 2021

Open Access | Article

The Development of Racial Attitudes among Chinese Adolescents and Adults

Chenhao Zhang * 1
1 Graduate School of Education, University of Pennsylvania

* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Communications in Humanities Research, Vol. 1, 96-104
Published 12 December 2021. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by EWA Publishing
This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Citation Chenhao Zhang. The Development of Racial Attitudes among Chinese Adolescents and Adults. CHR (2021) Vol. 1: 96-104. DOI: 10.54254/chr.iceipi.2021236.


Race and race-related issues are pervasive in the United States, causing detrimental consequences at individual and societal levels. Not only in the United states, racial conflict also exists in racially homogeneous countries, such as China, given the rising economic development and cultural communications between Chinese society and other nations. The present article aims to reveal the development of racial attitudes among Chinese adolescents and adults. We assessed implicit and explicit racial attitudes toward Black and White people among 60 Chinese participants (M age = 18.04; 34 female). Participants’ implicit racial attitudes were measured via an Implicit Association Test (IAT), and their explicit racial attitudes were measured via an explicit scale. We found that Chinese adolescents and adults displayed both implicit and explicit racial biases against black people; however, they did not show implicit or explicit racial biases against white people. We also found that participants’ implicit and explicit racial biases were not affected by their age or gender.


adolescents; adults; development, explicit racial attitude, implicit racial attitude


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Data Availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study will be available from the authors upon reasonable request.

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